Selenium Testing Interview Questions

Selenium Testing Interview Questions

Selenium Testing Interview Questions

1) What is Selenium and how does it work?

Selenium is a set of automated web testing tools. It is made up of

IDE (Integrated Development Environment) for Selenium: It's a recording and playback programme. It's a Firefox add-on.

WebDriver and RC are APIs for a range of languages, including Java,.NET, PHP, and others. Webdriver and RC are compatible with the majority of browsers.

Grid: Grid allows you to distribute tests over numerous machines so that they may be run in parallel, reducing the amount of time it takes to run browser test suites.

 

2. What is Selenium 2.O?

Web Testing tools Selenium RC and WebDriver are consolidated in single tool in Selenium 2.0

 

 

What is Selenium 2.0

 

3) How do you plan on using Selenium to locate an element?

Every object or control in a web page is referred to as an element in Selenium, and there are several ways to locate one.

ID

Name

Tag

Attribute

CSS

Text

Xpath 

Linktext

PartialLink 

4) What are the different kinds of tests that Selenium supports?

Selenium is a tool that can be used to test web-based applications.

The following are examples of test kinds that can be accommodated.

a) It is useful; More information on functional testing can be found here.

egression is the second option.

An automated continuous integration tool could be utilised for post-release validation.

Jenkins, to begin with

Hudson, 

Simple to construct

CruiseCont 

 

5) Describe what assertion is in Selenium and the different sorts of assertion.

Assertion is used as a point of verification. It confirms that the application's current status is as intended. "assert," "verify," and "waitFor" are the three sorts of assertions.

 

6) What is the purpose of the X-path?

In web pages, X-Path is utilised to locate the WebElement. It can also be used to identify dynamic aspects.

Refer to the XPath Complete Guide.

 

7) In X-path, what is the difference between a single and a double slash?

'/' is a single slash.

Start selection from the document node with a single slash (/).
You can use it to make 'absolute' path expressions.
'//' with a double slash

Start selection matching anywhere in the document with a double slash (/).
It allows you to make path expressions that are'relative.'

 

8.What are the technological difficulties using Selenium?
 
Selenium has number of technical challenges.
Only web-
based applications are supported by Selenium.
 
The Bitmap comparison is not supported.
 
Any reporting-related functions must rely on third-party software.
 
In comparison to commercial products like HP UFT, the tool has no vendor support.
 
Maintainability of objects becomes problematic in Selenium since there is no concept of an object repository.

 

9.What is the difference between keyboard shortcuts and keyboard commands?
 
In most circumstances, TypeKeys() will produce JavaScript event, whereas.type() would not. 
 
Type key uses JavaScript to populate the value attribute, whereas.typekeys() simulates actual user typing.

 

10.What is the difference between the commands verify and assert?
 
AssertAssert allows you to see if an element is present on the page.

or it's not. If the asserted element is not available, the test will fail at that step. To put it another way, the test will end when the check fails.

Verify: The verify command checks whether the element is present on the page; if it is not, the test will continue to run. Even if one of the tests fails, all of the commands will be guaranteed to run during verification.

 

11) What are JUnit Annotations and what are the different sorts of annotations?

Annotations are a unique type of syntactic meta-data that can be introduced to Java source code. Annotated variables, parameters, packages, methods, and classes Some of the more helpful Junit annotations are:

Test
Before
After
Ignore
BeforeClass
AfterClass
RunWith

 

12) Is it possible to use screen coordinates while using the click command?

You'll need to use the clickAT command to click on a specific area of an element. The element locator and x, y co-ordinates are passed as arguments to the ClickAt instruction.

 

13) What are some of the benefits of selenium?

C#, PHP, Java, Perl, and Phython are all supported.
It works with a variety of operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.
It has effective methods for locating components (Xpath, DOM , CSS)
It has a large development community that is backed by Google.

 

14) Why should testers use Selenium instead of QTP?

Selenium is more widely used than QTP.

QTP is a commercial tool, whereas Selenium is open source.
Selenium is used to test web-based applications, whereas QTP can be used to test client-server applications. Selenium supports Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari on operating systems such as Windows, Mac, and Linux, whereas QTP is confined to Internet Explorer on Windows.
Selenium supports a variety of programming languages, including Ruby, Perl, and Python, whereas QTP does not.

 

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Google cloud Interview Questions for Experienced

Google cloud Interview Questions for Experienced

Google cloud Interview Questions for Experienced

1) Why is a virtualization platform required for cloud implementation?

Virtualization allows you to construct operating systems, virtual storage, networks, and applications, among other things. We can expand the existing infrastructure with the correct virtualization. Existing servers can run many applications and operating systems.

2) What is the difference between elasticity and scalability?

Scalability is a cloud computing capability that allows it to scale up the capacity of resources to adapt to expanding workloads. When traffic increases, the architecture uses scalability to deliver on-demand resources. Elasticity, on the other hand, is a feature that allows for the dynamic commissioning and dismantling of large amounts of resources. It is determined by the availability of resources and the length of time they are used.

3) How do Google Compute Engine and Google App Engine work together?

Both Google App Engine and Google Compute Engine are mutually beneficial. GCE is an IaaS service, whereas Google Application Engine is a PaaS service. Mobile backends, web-based apps, and line-of-business applications all rely on GAE. If we require additional control over the underlying infrastructure, Compute Engine is a wonderful solution. For example, Compute Engine can be used to create bespoke business logic or run our storage system.

4) What is the meaning of EUCALYPTUS?

"Elastic Utility Computing Architecture For Linking Your Program To Useful Systems" is what EUCALYPTUS stands for. This is a free cloud computing software architecture that is used to create cloud computing clusters. It offers private, public, and hybrid cloud services.

5) What are the different authentication methods for the Google Compute Engine API?

Authentication for the Google Compute Engine API can be done in a variety of ways:

Using the OAuth 2.0 protocol

Using the client library

Using an access token directly

6) What are some of the most widely used open-source cloud computing platforms?

Here are a few of the most popular open-source cloud platforms:

KVM

Docker

OpenStack

Mesos is an Apache project.

Cloud Foundry is a company that creates cloud-based

7) How do you distinguish between a project number and a project ID?

The project identifier and the project number are two factors that are used to identify a project. The following are the differences between the two:

When a project is created, the project id is generated automatically, but the project number is entered manually by the user. The number of the project is required and required, but the project ID may be optional for the services, but it is required for the Google Compute Engine.

8) How can data be safeguarded during cloud transport?

Verify that the encryption key used with the data you submit does not leak data as it flows from point A to point B on the cloud to ensure that the data is secure.

9) What are cloud computing system integrators?

A cloud has various components that can be difficult to understand. The system integrator is a cloud strategy that enables the design of the cloud, as well as the integration of various components for the establishment of a hybrid or private cloud network, among other things.

10) What are Google Cloud projects?

Projects are containers that organize all of Google Compute's resources. They make up the compartmentalized world. are not intended for resource sharing. Projects may have a variety of users and owners.

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Google Cloud Interview Questions

Google Cloud Interview Questions

Google Cloud Interview Questions

1) What is Google Cloud Platform, and how does it work?

Google Cloud Platform is a Google-managed cloud-based platform. Virtual machines, computing, networking, storage, big data, database and management services, machine learning, and much more are all included in one package. All of these services are powered by the same Google infrastructure that powers Google's consumer products like Google Search, Gmail, and YouTube.

2) Make a list of the advantages of adopting Google's cloud platform.

Because of the advantages it offers over competing cloud platforms, Google Cloud Platform is growing in popularity among cloud experts and users:

GCP offers cost-effective pricing.

Information may be accessed from anywhere thanks to Google Cloud servers.

GCP provides greater performance and services than most other cloud hosting options.

Google Cloud satisfies.

 

3)Make a list of the most important aspects of cloud services.

The Cloud Service and Cloud Computing as a whole provide a wide range of benefits, notably the simplicity with which commercial software may be accessed and managed from anywhere in the globe.

All software administration may be easily centralized into a single online service.

Designing and creating online apps that can simultaneously serve many clients from across the world.

Streamlining and automating the software upgrading process to eliminate software upgrade downloads.

 

4) What are the various levels that makeup cloud architecture?

The cloud architecture has several levels, including:

 

Network, physical servers, and other features are included in the Physical Layer.

Infrastructure layer: This layer includes virtualized storage levels, among other things.

Application, operating system, and other features are covered by the platform layer.

It is the layer of the application.

 

5) What libraries and tools are available on Google Cloud Platform for cloud storage?

On the Google Cloud Platform, JSON and XML APIs are essential for cloud storage. Google also provides the following tools for interfacing with cloud storage.

 

To perform basic actions on buckets and objects, use the Google Cloud Platform Console.

Cloud Storage Client Libraries is a set of libraries that allows you to program in several languages.

Gustin Command-line Tool includes a CLI for cloud storage support.

There are additional third-party utilities available, such as the Boto Library.

 

6) What is a Google Cloud API, and how does it work? How would we be able to get our hands on it?

Google Cloud APIs are programmatic interfaces that allow users to add power to anything from storage to machine-learning-based image analytics to Google Search.

Applications that are hosted in the cloud.

Client libraries and server programs may easily use cloud APIs. The Google Cloud API is accessible through several programming languages. Firebase SDKs or third-party clients can be utilized to create mobile applications. The Google SDK command-line tools or the Google Cloud Platform Console Web UI can be used to access Google Cloud APIs.

 

7) What is Google Cloud SDK, and how does it work?

The Google Cloud SDK is a set of command-line utilities. This is for the development of Google's cloud. With these tools, we can use the command line to access big queries, cloud storage, compute Engines, and other services. Client libraries and API libraries are included as well. These tools and frameworks let us interact with Virtual Machine instances, as well as manage computer engine networks, storage, and firewalls.

 

8) Describe the concept of service accounts.

Accounts that are dedicated to a project are known as service accounts. Compute Engine will employ service accounts to do operations on the user's behalf, giving the user access to non-sensitive data and information. These accounts are in charge of the authorization system.

Making it easy for users to authenticate Google Cloud Engine with other services. It's important to understand that service accounts can't access user information. While Google provides several service accounts, consumers prefer the following two types of service accounts:

Accounts for GCE services
Google Cloud Platform is a cloud computing platform developed by Google. Accounts for console services

 

9) What is a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)?
The term VPC stands for Virtual Private Cloud. This is a virtual network that connects Google Kubernetes Engine clusters, compute Engine VM instances and a variety of other resources. The VPC provides a lot of control over how workloads connect globally or regionally. A single VPC may serve several regions without having to communicate over the Internet.

10) What is Google App Engine, and how does it work?

Google App Engine is a Platform as a Service offering that provides scalable services to web application developers and companies. The developers may use this to create and deploy a fully managed platform, as well as scale it as needed. PHP, Java, Go, C#, Python,.Net, and Node.js are among the prominent programming languages supported. It also offers versatility.

 

11) What is load balancing and how does it work?
Load balancing is a mechanism for managing requests that distributes computing resources and workloads within a cloud-based computing environment. Because the workload is properly controlled through resource allocation, it gives a high return on investment at lower costs. It makes use of the concepts of agility and scalability to increase the available resources as needed. It also functions as a health check for the cloud app. This capability is accessible from all major cloud providers, including Google Cloud Platform, Amazon Web Services, and Microsoft Azure.

 

12) What is the difference between a Google Cloud Storage bucket and a Google Cloud Storage account?

Buckets are the fundamental storage units for data. We can arrange the data and grant control access using buckets. The bucket has a one-of-a-kind name around the world. The location where the content is stored is referred to as a geographic location. There is a default storage class that is applied to objects that do not have a storage class specified and are added to the bucket. It is possible to create or delete an unlimited number of buckets.

 

13) What does the term "BigQuery" imply?
Google Cloud Platform offers BigQuery, a warehouse service. With an integrated machine learning and in-memory data analysis engine, it is a cost-effective and highly scalable offering. It allows us to analyze data in real-time and generate analytical reports utilizing a data analysis engine. External data sources like object storage, transactional databases, and spreadsheets are handled by BigQuery.

 

14) What is Object Versioning, and how does it work?
Object versioning is a technique for recovering items that have been overwritten or erased. Versioning objects raises storage costs, but it protects object security when they are replaced or erased. When object versioning is enabled in the GCP bucket, anytime an object is removed or overwritten, a non-common version of the object is created. Identifying characteristics Generation and meta generation are two types of object versions. The term "generation" refers to the creation of content, whereas "meta generation" refers to the creation of metadata.

 

15) What is Google Cloud Messaging, and how does it work?
Google Cloud Messaging, commonly known as Firebase, is a free cross-platform notification service that allows us to send and receive messages and notifications. We can send messages or notify customer applications or send messages to encourage user re-engagement using this solution. It gives us the capacity to send multi-purpose messages to individual devices, subscribing devices, or a group of devices.

 

16) What is serverless computing, and how does it work?
The cloud service provider will have a server in the cloud that runs and manages the resource allocation dynamically in Serverless computing. The provider provides the necessary infrastructure so that the user can focus on their work without having to worry about their hardware. Users are required to pay for the resources they consume. It will streamline the code distribution process while removing all maintenance and scalability concerns for users. Utility computing is a term used to describe this type of computing.

 

17) What types of cloud computing development models are available?
There are four different cloud computing development models to choose from:

Public Cloud: Anyone with a subscription can use this type of cloud. The public has access to resources such as the operating system, RAM, CPU, and storage.

A private cloud is a type of infrastructure that can only be accessed by a company and not by the general public. When compared to public clouds, these are frequently more expensive to develop.

Hybrid Cloud: This infrastructure makes use of both public and private clouds. It is used by many organizations to quickly expand their resources when they are needed.

Community Cloud: In this concept, numerous organizations pool their resources and create a pool that is only accessible to members of the community.

 

18) What are the cloud's security concerns?
Here are a few of the most critical features of cloud security.

Access control: It enables users to restrict other users' access to the cloud ecosystem.

 

Identity management: It allows application services to be authorized.

 

Authorization and authentication: It restricts access to apps and data to only those who are authorized and authenticated.

 

19) How is on-demand functionality provided by cloud computing?

Cloud computing as technology was created to provide on-demand features to all of its users at any time and from any location. It has achieved this goal because of recent advancements and the ease of application availability, such as Google Cloud. The files will be seen by any Google Cloud user. If you're connected to the Internet, you may access your data in the cloud at any time, on any device, from anywhere.

 

20) What are the benefits of using APIs in the cloud?
The API has the following important advantages over the cloud domain:

You don't need to write the full program.
It's simple to transfer data from one app to another.
Creating apps and connecting them to cloud services is simple.

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Python Interview Questions

Python Interview Questions

Python Interview Questions

Introduction Of Python

Guido van Rossum created Python, which was originally released on February 20, 1991. It is one of the most popular and well-liked programming languages, and since it is interpreted, it allows for the incorporation of dynamic semantics. It's also a free and open-source language with straightforward syntax. This makes learning Python simple for programmers. Python also allows object-oriented programming and is the most widely used programming language.

Python's popularity is skyrocketing, thanks to its ease of use and ability to perform several functions with fewer lines of code. Python is also utilized in Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Web Development, Web Scraping, and a variety of other fields because of its ability to handle sophisticated calculations through the usage of powerful libraries.

As a result, python developers are in high demand in India and throughout the world. Companies are eager to provide these professionals with incredible advantages and privileges.

We'll look at the most popular python interview questions and answers in this post, which will help you thrive and land great job offers.

 

1. What exactly is Python? What are the advantages of Python?

Python is a general-purpose, high-level, interpreted programming language. With the correct tools/libraries, it may be used to construct practically any form of application because it is a general-purpose language. Python also has features like objects, modules, threads, exception handling, and automated memory management, all of which aid in the modeling of real-world issues and the development of programs to solve them.

Python's advantages include the following:

-Python is a general-purpose programming language with a simple, easy-to-learn syntax that prioritizes readability and hence lowers program maintenance costs. Furthermore, the language is scriptable, open-source, and enables third-party packages, which promotes modularity and code reuse.

-Its high-level data structures, along with the dynamic type and dynamic binding, have attracted a large developer community for Rapid Application Development and deployment.

 

2. What is the difference between a dynamically typed language and a statically typed language?

We must first learn about typing before we can comprehend a dynamically typed language. In computer languages, typing refers to type-checking. Because these languages don't allow for "type-coercion," "1" + 2 will result in a type error in a strongly-typed language like Python (implicit conversion of data types). A weakly-typed language, such as Javascript, on the other hand, will simply return "12" as a result.

There are two steps to type-checking:

-Data Types are verified before execution in the static mode.

-Data Types are examined while the program is running.

-Python is an interpreted language that executes each statement line by line, thus type-checking happens in real-time while the program is running. Python is a Dynamically Typed Language as a result.

 

3. What is the definition of an interpreted language?

The sentences in an Interpreted language are executed line by line. Interpreted languages include Python, Javascript, R, PHP, and Ruby, to name just a few. An interpreted language program executes straight from the source code, without the need for a compilation phase.

 

4. What is the purpose of PEP 8 and why is it important?

Python Enhancement Proposal (PEP) is an acronym for Python Enhancement Proposal. A Python Extension Protocol (PEP) is an official design document that provides information to the Python community or describes a new feature or procedure for Python. PEP 8 is particularly important since it outlines the Python Code style rules. Contributing to the Python open-source community appears to need a serious and tight adherence to these stylistic rules.

 

5. What is Python's Scope?
In Python, each object has its scope. In Python, a scope is a block of code in which an object is still relevant. All the objects in a program are uniquely identified by namespaces. These namespaces, on the other hand, have a scope set for them, allowing you to utilize their objects without any prefix. The following are a few instances of scope produced during Python code execution:

The local objects available in the current function are referred to as a local scope.
A global scope refers to the items that have been available from the beginning of the code execution.
The global objects of the current module that are available in the program are referred to as a module-level scope.
The built-in names that can be called in an outermost scope are referred to as "built-in names." the schedule To discover the name referenced, the items in this scope are searched last.

 

6. What are tuples and lists? What is the primary distinction between the two?

In Python, both Lists and Tuples are sequence data types that may hold a collection of things. Both sequences can hold items with various data types. Tuples are expressed by parentheses ('she, 5, 0.97), whereas lists are represented by square brackets ['Sara, 6, 0.19].
What, though, is the fundamental distinction between the two? The main distinction between the two is that lists are changeable, but tuples are immutable objects. This implies that although lists can be changed, added, or sliced on the fly, tuples are fixed and cannot be changed in any way. To verify the results, run the following example in Python IDLE.

 

7. What are the most frequent Python built-in data types?

Python has several built-in data types. Even though Python does not need data types to be stated explicitly during variable declarations, type errors are likely to arise if data types and their compatibility are ignored. To determine the type of these variables, Python has the type() and isinstance () methods. The following categories can be used to classify these data types:

 

8. What is the meaning of pass in Python?

In Python, the pass keyword denotes a null operation. It is commonly used to fill in blank blocks of code that may execute during runtime but has not yet been written. We may encounter issues during code execution if we don't use the pass statement in the following code.

pass myEmptyFunc() # nothing occurs def myEmptyFunc(): # do nothing
# IndentationError: anticipated an indented block # Without the pass keyword # File "", line 3 #

 

9. In Python, what are modules and packages?

Python packages and Python modules are two methods that make it possible to program in Python in a modular fashion. Modularization provides several advantages:

Simplicity: Working on a single module allows you to concentrate on a tiny part of the problem. As a result,

Maintainability: Modules are meant to impose logical boundaries between distinct issue domains, making them easier to maintain. Modifications to one module are less likely to affect other portions of the program if they are written in a way that decreases interdependency.
Reusability: A module's functions can easily be reused by other portions of the program.
Scoping: Modules usually have their namespace, which makes it easier to distinguish between identifiers from different areas of the program.

Modules are essentially Python files with a.py extension that contain a collection of declared and implemented functions, classes, or variables. Using the import statement, they may be imported and initialized once. Import the required classes or functions from the foo import bar if just partial functionality is required.

 

10. In Python, what are global, protected, and private attributes?

Global variables are variables that are defined in the global scope and are accessible to everyone. The global keyword is used to use a variable in the global scope within a function.
Protected attributes are those that include an underscore before their identifier, such as _sara. They can still be accessed and updated outside of the class in which they are declared, but a prudent developer should avoid it.
__ansh is an example of a private attribute, which has a double underscore prefixed to its identifier. They can't be accessed or updated directly from the outside, and attempting to do so would result in an Attribute Error.

 

11. What is the purpose of the self variable in Python?
The self variable is used to represent the class instance. In Python, you may access the class's properties and methods with this keyword. It connects the characteristics to the arguments. self is a term that is used in a variety of contexts and is frequently mistaken for a keyword. In Python, however, self is not a keyword, as it is in C++.

 

12. What is the meaning of __init__?

When a new object/instance is formed, the constructor function __init__ is immediately called to allocate memory. The __init__ function is connected with all classes. It aids in the differentiation of a class's methods and properties from local variables.

# Definition of a class

student's class:

self, fname, lname, age, section): def init (self, fname, lname, age, section):

frame = self.first name

self.Lastname-

name =

age = self.age

section = self.section

# a new object is being created

1st year student ("Sara", "Ansh", 22, "A2")

13. What is the difference between break, continue, and pass in Python?

Break

The break statement immediately ends the loop, and control passes to the statement after the loop's body.

Continue

The continue statement ends the current iteration of the statement, skips the rest of the code in that iteration, and passes control to the next loop iteration.

Pass

As previously stated, the pass keyword in Python is used to fill in empty blocks and is equivalent to an empty statement in other languages like Java, C++, Javascript, and others, which is represented by a semi-colon.

 

14. What are Python unit tests?

Python's unit testing framework is called the unit test.
The term "unit testing" refers to the process of testing individual software components. Can you conceive of a good reason for unit testing? Consider the following scenario: you're developing software that includes three components: A, B, and C. Let's say your software fails at some point. How will you determine which component caused the program to malfunction? Perhaps component A failed, causing component B to fail, and the program to fail as a result. There are a plethora of possible combinations.
This is why it's critical to thoroughly test every component so we can figure out which one is to blame for the software's failure.

 

15. What is a Python docstring?

A documentation string, often known as a docstring, is a multiline string used to describe a code section.
The function or method should be described in the docstring.

 

16. In Python, what is slicing?

Slicing, as the name implies, is the process of removing portions of anything.
[start: stop: step] is the slicing syntax.
the start is the index at which a list or tuple should be sliced.
The finishing index, or where to sop, is stopped.
The number of steps to leap is called a step.
The start is set to 0, the stop is set to the number of items, and the step is set to one.
Strings, arrays, lists, and tuples may all be sliced.

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Data Science Interview Questions

Data Science Interview Questions

Data Science Interview Questions

1. What exactly does the phrase "Data Science" imply?
Data Science is an interdisciplinary discipline that encompasses a variety of scientific procedures, algorithms, tools, and machine learning approaches that work together to uncover common patterns and gain useful insights from raw input data using statistical and mathematical analysis.

 

2. What is the distinction between data science and data analytics?
Data science is altering data using a variety of technical analysis approaches to derive useful insights that data analysts may apply to their business scenarios.
Data analytics is concerned with verifying current hypotheses and facts, as well as providing answers to queries for a more efficient and successful business decision-making process.
Data Science fosters innovation by providing answers to questions that help people make connections and solve challenges in the future. Data analytics is concerned with extracting current meaning from past contexts, whereas data science is concerned with predictive modeling.
Data science is a vast field that employs a variety of mathematical and scientific methods and algorithms to solve complicated issues, whereas data analytics is a subset of data science.

 

4. Make a list of the overfitting and underfitting circumstances.
Overfitting: The model only works well with a small set of training data. If the model is given any fresh data as input, it fails to provide any results. These circumstances arise as a result of the model's low bias and large variance. Overfitting is more common in decision trees.
Underfitting: In this case, the model is so simple that it is unable to recognize the proper connection in the data, and hence performs poorly even on test data. This can happen when there is a lot of bias and little variation. Underfitting is more common in linear regression.

 

5. Distinguish between data in long and wide formats.
a lengthy format Data Data in a Wide Format
Each row of the data reflects a subject's one-time information. Each subject's data would be organized in different/multiple rows. The repeated replies of a subject are divided into various columns in this example.
When viewing rows as groupings, the data may be identified.
By viewing columns as groups, the data may be identified.
This data format is most typically used in R analysis and for writing log files at the end of each experiment.
This data format is most widely used in stats programs for repeated measures ANOVAs and is seldom utilized in R analysis.

 

6. What is the difference between Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues?
Column vectors or unit vectors with a length/magnitude of 1 are called eigenvectors. Right vectors are another name for them. Eigenvalues are coefficients that are applied to eigenvectors to give them varying length or magnitude values.
Eigen decomposition is the process of breaking down a matrix into Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues. These are then utilized in machine learning approaches such as PCA (Principal Component Analysis) to extract useful information from a matrix.

 

7. What does it imply to have high and low p-values?
A p-value is a measure of the likelihood of getting outcomes that are equal to or greater than those obtained under a certain hypothesis, provided the null hypothesis is true. This indicates the likelihood that the observed discrepancy happened by coincidence.

If the p-value is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis may be rejected, and the data is unlikely to be true null.
The strength in support of the null hypothesis is indicated by a high p-value, i.e. values less than 0.05. It indicates that the data is true null.
The hypothesis can go either way with a p-value of 0.05.

 

8. When does resampling take place?
Resampling is a data sampling technique that improves accuracy and quantifies the uncertainty of population characteristics. It is done to check that the model is adequate by training it on various patterns in a dataset to guarantee that variances are handled. It's also done when models need to be verified using random subsets or when doing tests with labels substituted on data points.

 

9. What do you mean when you say "imbalanced data"?
When data is spread unequally across several categories, it is said to be highly unbalanced. These datasets cause a performance problem in the model, as well as inaccuracies.

 

10. Do the predicted value and the mean value varies in any way?
Although there aren't many variations between these two, it's worth noting that they're employed in different situations. In general, the mean value relates to the probability distribution, whereas the anticipated value is used when dealing with random variables.

 

11. What does Survivorship Bias mean to you?
Due to a lack of prominence, this bias refers to the logical fallacy of focusing on parts that survived a procedure while missing others that did not. This bias can lead to incorrect conclusions being drawn.

 

12. Define the words key performance indicators (KPIs), lift, model fitting, robustness, and DOE.
KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator, which is a metric that assesses how successfully a company meets its goals.
Lift is a measure of the target model's performance when compared to a random choice model. The lift represents how well the model predicts compared to if there was no model.
Model fitting is a measure of how well the model under consideration matches the data.
Robustness: This refers to the system's capacity to deal with changes and variations.

 

13. Identify the variables that might confuse.
Confounders are another term for confounding factors. These variables are a form of extraneous variable that has an impact on both independent and dependent variables, generating erroneous associations and mathematical correlations between variables that are connected but not incidentally.

 

14. What if a dataset contains variables with more than 30% missing values? How would you deal with such a dataset?
We use one of the following methods, depending on the size of the dataset:

The missing values are replaced with the mean or average of the remaining data if the datasets are minimal. This may be done in pandas by using mean = df. mean(), where df is the panda's data frame that contains the dataset and mean() determines the data's mean. We may use df.fillna to fill in the missing numbers with the computed mean (mean).
The rows with missing values may be deleted from bigger datasets, and the remaining data can be utilized for data prediction.

 

15. What is Cross-Validation, and how does it work?
Cross-validation is a statistical technique that is used to test the validity of a hypothesis.

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